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Desktop Linux distributions include a windowing system, such as X11, Mir or a Wayland implementation, and an accompanying desktop environment such as GNOME or KDE Plasma 5; some distributions may also include a less resource-intensive desktop, such as LXDE or Xfce.
Distributions intended to run on servers may omit all graphical environments from the standard install, and instead include other software to set up and operate a solution stack such as LAMP.
Because Linux is freely redistributable, anyone may create a distribution for any intended use.
Many Linux distributions use the word "Linux" in their name.
Linux also runs on embedded systems—devices whose operating system is typically built into the firmware and is highly tailored to the system.
In 1984, AT&T divested itself of Bell Labs; freed of the legal obligation requiring free licensing, Bell Labs began selling Unix as a proprietary product, where users weren't legally allowed to modify Unix.
The GNU Project, started in 1983 by Richard Stallman, had the goal of creating a "complete Unix-compatible software system" composed entirely of free software. Later, in 1985, Stallman started the Free Software Foundation and wrote the GNU General Public License (GNU GPL) in 1989.
The Free Software Foundation uses the name "GNU/Linux" to refer to the operating system family, as well as specific distributions, to emphasize that most Linux distributions are not just the Linux kernel, and that they have in common not only the kernel, but also numerous utilities and libraries, a large proportion of which are from the GNU project. First released in 1971, Unix was written entirely in assembly language, as was common practice at the time.
Later, in a key pioneering approach in 1973, it was rewritten in the C programming language by Dennis Ritchie (with the exception of some hardware and I/O routines).
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Torvalds has also stated that if 386BSD had been available at the time, he probably would not have created Linux. Tanenbaum, a computer science professor, and released in 1987 as a minimal Unix-like operating system targeted at students and others who wanted to learn the operating system principles.